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Citations and Style Guides

Information on plagiarism and citations, including APA and MLA.

Formatting a paper APA style

From: Samuel Forlenza, PhD, YouTube

In-Text Citations

APA Style uses what is called an author-date method of citation. The author's surname is inserted with the correct year of publication for the resource.

This citation is used to identify where an idea, thought, or concept originates as you write a research paper. It is placed at the end of a sentence, paragraph, or thought, depending on where your research appears.

Refer to the examples below to review the different ways you can create an in-text citation.


Material Type

In-Text Citation Example

Author's name in text

 Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples...

Author's name as a reference

 The study also showed that there was a high rate of comorbidity with alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression (Kessler, 2003).

Two authors' names as a reference

 The effects of the study have been demonstrated in the trials (Abrams & Evans, 2007).

Works with no identified author

 Important data collected by the Dept. of Education in Victoria has prompted the creation of fact sheets that can be found online ("Fact Sheet Four," 2010).

Sample Citation


Austen, J. (2003). Pride and prejudice. New York: Bantam.

Parenthetical or In-text
(author, date of publication)

(Austen, 2003)

Parenthetical or In-text, Direct quotes

(Austen, 2003, p.42)