Courtesy of Raynor Memorial Libraries at Marquette University.
Courtesy of Jason Morgon on YouTube.
Parenthetical citations typically go at the end of a sentence that quote, paraphrases, or refers to a source. Closing punctuation for that sentence goes after the citation.
Each item cited in your text should have a corresponding item in your bibliography.
List the author's last name followed by a page number: (Barron 194).
Author has more than one work in your bibliography?
Add a short title to your citation: (Barron, "Redefining" 194).
Source has no author?
Use a short form of the title: (Reading at Risk 3)
Source has no page numbers?
Exclude page numbers or use a marker that is prominent in the text (like paragraph numbers, section numbers, time stamps, chapter numbers, line numbers, etc): (Chan, par. 41), (sec. 3), "Hush" 00:03:16-17), (ch. 17), ("Ode" 1-3), etc.
Citing more than one source in a single sentence?
Separate the citations with a semicolon: (Baron 194; Jacobs 55).
Already mentioned the author's name in the sentence?
Omit the author's name from the citation: (194).
Citing the Bible?
Use the title, followed by abbreviated book name, followed by chapter and verse separated by a period: (Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10).
Use the play's abbreviated title followed by act, scene, and line numbers separated by periods: (Mac. 1.5.17).
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Bantam, 2003.
(includes last name and page number)